Urea stands as one of the most sought-after and effective sources of nitrogen for plants. In the vast realm of fertilizers, urea has garnered a prominent position due to its unparalleled ability to supply essential nitrogen, which is paramount for plant growth and vitality. Furthermore, when compared with a myriad of other fertilizers, urea’s nitrogen content (46%) is notably high. This distinguishing feature not only enhances its efficacy but also cements its status as a preferred choice for both hobbyist gardeners and large-scale agriculturalists.

Through the years, as understanding of plant nutrition evolved, the importance of nitrogen and, consequently, the value of urea in bolstering plant health, has become increasingly evident. Let’s discuss more about the benefits of urea fertilizer for plants from this article.

Types of Urea Fertilizer

1. Granular Urea: One of the most common forms of urea available in the market is granular urea. Characterized by its larger, more uniform granule size, granular urea is often favored for its ease of handling and application. This form is particularly suited for use in mechanized spreading methods due to its consistent granule size, which allows for even distribution over large areas. Beyond just agricultural fields, granular urea also finds applications in gardens, orchards, and greenhouses, proving its versatility.

2. Prilled Urea: Slightly different from its granular counterpart, prilled urea possesses a smaller and less uniform granule size. Though it might seem like a minor distinction, this difference plays a pivotal role in certain applications. Prilled urea is commonly used in specific settings where finer application is required, such as in smaller gardens or when manually distributing the fertilizer. Additionally, its smaller size makes it more soluble, which can be advantageous in situations requiring quick nutrient release.

3. Liquid Urea: Venturing beyond the solid forms of urea, we encounter liquid urea, a solution-based variant. This form is typically a mixture of urea and water, resulting in a clear, non-viscous liquid. Liquid urea is especially favored for its rapid absorption rate by plants and immediate availability of nitrogen. It is extensively used in fertigation (fertilizer + irrigation) systems, where the fertilizer is directly mixed with irrigation water, ensuring a uniform nutrient distribution.

Furthermore, liquid urea eliminates the risks associated with granular applications, like uneven spread or potential burning of delicate crops. It offers a more controlled application, making it a preferred choice in scenarios demanding precision and immediate nutrient availability.

Understanding the Nitrogen Needs of Plants

Nitrogen stands as an indispensable element for plants, anchoring their growth and vitality. It’s fundamental in constructing amino acids — the building blocks of proteins — and is paramount in creating chlorophyll, the pigment driving photosynthesis. In its absence, plants struggle to transform sunlight into energy, limiting their development.

A lack of nitrogen manifests distinct visual signs. Mature leaves usually adopt a yellowish hue, beginning at their extremities, whereas the younger leaves mostly retain their green shade. If the deficit persists, plants might look faded and underdeveloped, showing diminished flowering and fruit production. Detecting these indications promptly allows for swift corrective measures to rejuvenate the plant.

How to Apply Urea Fertilizer

1. Soil Incorporation: For optimal results when using urea fertilizer, it’s beneficial to integrate it directly into the soil. This method involves tilling or digging the soil and then mixing the urea granules within the top few inches. Soil incorporation ensures that the fertilizer is in close contact with plant roots, promoting efficient nitrogen uptake. Additionally, it reduces the potential for nitrogen loss through ammonia volatilization, maximizing the fertilizer’s effectiveness.

2. Top Dressing: This method is simpler and involves directly sprinkling urea granules on the soil surface. Top dressing is particularly useful for established plants or in situations where tilling isn’t feasible. However, it’s essential to water the soil promptly after application to help dissolve the urea and prevent nitrogen loss to the atmosphere.

3. Solution Application: In some contexts, a liquid form of urea is more suitable. This involves dissolving urea granules in water and applying the solution either via a watering can or through an irrigation system. Solution application ensures rapid nitrogen availability and is especially beneficial for plants showing signs of nitrogen deficiency.

When applying urea, it’s crucial to ensure even distribution to prevent over-fertilization of certain areas, which can harm plants. Wearing gloves is advisable to avoid direct contact with the skin. Additionally, avoid applying urea on windy days, as this can lead to uneven distribution.

After application, keep pets and children away from the treated area until the fertilizer has been watered in or incorporated into the soil. By following these guidelines, you can harness the full benefits of urea fertilizer while ensuring safety and effectiveness.

Urea Fertilizer Advantages and Disadvantages

Urea fertilizer, renowned for its high nitrogen content, has emerged as a staple in many agricultural and gardening practices. As with any resource, its application carries both strengths and potential drawbacks. Delving into the advantages and disadvantages of urea fertilizer provides an informed perspective, allowing users to maximize its benefits while being cognizant of its limitations.


1. High Nitrogen Content: Urea stands out primarily because of its impressive nitrogen content, making it one of the most concentrated nitrogenous fertilizers available. This means less product needs to be applied to achieve the desired nitrogen levels, making it a more efficient choice for many growers.

2. Cost-effectiveness: When considering the amount of nitrogen delivered per dollar spent, urea often emerges as a cost-effective option. Its widespread production and availability further drive down costs, making it an economical choice for both small-scale gardeners and commercial farmers.

3. Solubility and Ease of Application: Urea is highly water-soluble, which facilitates easy application, especially in liquid form. Its solubility ensures that plants can quickly access and utilize the nitrogen once the urea is applied and watered in.

4. Flexibility in Application Methods: As discussed earlier, urea can be applied in various ways, including soil incorporation, top dressing, and as a liquid solution. This versatility allows growers to choose a method that best suits their plants’ needs and their operational constraints.


1. Potential for Ammonia Volatilization: If urea remains on the soil’s surface and isn’t properly incorporated or watered in, it can lose a significant portion of its nitrogen content to the atmosphere in the form of ammonia gas. This not only reduces the effectiveness of the fertilizer but can also lead to environmental concerns.

2. Risk to Seedlings: Urea is potent, and if applied in excessive amounts directly to young plants or seedlings, it can cause burns or even kill the young plants due to its high nitrogen concentration.

3. Environmental Concerns: Overapplication or misapplication of urea can lead to nitrogen runoff into water systems, potentially causing algal blooms and other environmental issues. It’s essential to apply urea judiciously and in line with recommended rates to prevent such environmental hazards.

Complementing Urea with Other Fertilizers

Just as humans thrive on a balanced diet, plants too require a diverse range of nutrients to grow and flourish. While nitrogen is a fundamental component for plant growth and development, focusing solely on one nutrient can lead to deficiencies in others, potentially hindering a plant’s overall health and productivity. Plants not only require macro-nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) but also need many micro-nutrients. Each of these elements plays a unique role, from energy transfer to water regulation, and a deficiency in any can compromise the health of the plant.

Urea, with its high nitrogen content, addresses a significant aspect of plant nutrition. However, for holistic plant health, it’s often recommended to supplement urea with other fertilizers that provide phosphorus and potassium.

Phosphorus is crucial for energy transfer in plants, root development, flower and fruit formation, and overall resilience. Potassium, on the other hand, plays a role in water regulation, enzyme activation, and disease resistance. When using urea, gardeners and farmers can complement it by also applying fertilizers like superphosphate (for phosphorus) or muriate of potash (for potassium). This ensures that plants receive a balanced nutrient profile.

Furthermore, there are many complete fertilizers on the market that provide a balanced N-P-K ratio, suitable for various plant types and growth stages. When urea is used alongside these, it can amplify the nitrogen content as needed, allowing growers to tailor nutrient applications to the specific needs of their crops.

In essence, while urea offers significant benefits as a nitrogen source, a comprehensive approach to plant nutrition, integrating various fertilizers, ensures optimal growth, yield, and resilience of plants.